#5. How did Two of the following contribute to the reemergence of a two party system in the period 1820 to 1840?
Major political personalities
States’ rights
Economic issues

Main idea: Jackson's policies and action regularly went against the majority's thought or his officer's thought. Such differences aroused the reemergence of a two party system in the period of 1820 to 1840. In 1824, there were four candidates for the President of the United States. At this time only one party existed, the Democratic-Republicans. This would soon change. The parties were soon to separate into the Whig Party and Jacksonian-Democratic Party, or Democratic Party. Northern industrialists and merchants supported the Whigs; and they were more in favor of federal government involvement in the national economy. The common people and machine politicians in the East supported the Democrats; and they believed in absolute political freedom. Some of the topics that contributed to the spilt into two parties were major political figures of that time period, the state's rights debate, and economic issues, policies, and problems. The factors that contributed the most to the reemergence of a two party system were (YOUR TWO CHOICES)

Major Political Personalites
Some of the major political figures of that time period were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Q. Adams, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, John C. Calhoun and Robert Hayne. In 1828, Andrew Jackson beat John Q. Adams in the presidential election. This led to many anti-Jackson feelings and started the roots of a new political party, which would come to be known as the Whigs.

Election of 1824- split the only political party in two.
Republicans --> Democratic-Republicans + National Republican
later in 1832 National Republicans --> Whigs and Democratic-Republicans --> Democrats

Leaders of the Parties
John Q. Adams- National Republican
Signed the Tariff of Abominations-- people mad at republicans so go democratic-republican

Andrew Jackson- Democratic Republican/ Democrat
Killed the Bank of the United States (B.U.S.)-- some people were glad the grip of the bank was gone but it split the wealth and business democrats for the others so went to whigs for support
Trail of Tears-- removal of the indians. -- the supreme court struck it down but jackson didn't listen to them

Henry Clay- National Republican/ Whig
Election of 1824 and the "Corrupt Bargain"-- Split the only political party in two
American System-- democrats disagree helped to solidify the divisions between the two parties
Pushed through Congress the re-charter bill for the B.U.S. that Jackson vetoed-- helped split the parties further

Martin Van Buren- Democratic-Republican/ Democrat
Started the tradition of Songs and Slogans, parades, and rallies
Blocked Whig proposals for relief from the Panic of 1837-- made people mad at democrats so in the next election Whigs win for the first time-- W.H. Harrison (1840)


Economic Issues
Tariff of Abominations
Bank War
Panic of 1837

Tariff of Abominations
Put through Congress by Jacksoninas to get Adams to sign it, which would then make people mad at Adams and Jackson would win the next election-- it worked
Made the South Democrats because they now hated Adams and the national republicans

Bank War
Jackson hated the B.U.S.(personal feud with Nicholas Biddle due to the Eaton incident)
Jackson thought that the Bank was a chartered monopoly, an essentially private corporation that performed public services in return for exclusive economic rights
Bank’s renewal due 1836 but wanted recharter in 1832 Bank wanted recharter four years before it was due
Jackson started emptying federal funds from the bank and put them in his "Pet Banks"(state banks) when congress was NOT in session
People thought he was using his power for his personal revenge
encouraged people to support the attack against the “monster”
first ever to use more than strictly constitutional arguments to deal social and economic issues
easily won the 1832 election
recharter passed congress but vetoed by President Jackson
“the bank…is trying to kill me, but I will kill it.”
now even the people who supported getting rid of the Bank started going against Jackson
new national party called the Whigs formed
Specie Circular-- had to pay for land in gold or silver only

Panic of 1837
Caused by Jackson killing the B.U.S.
started during the end of Jacksons presidency but more harmful immediately after Van Buren became president
Whigs proposed solutions to the panic but Van Buren shot them down-- people got mad at democrats for resulting such economic crisis that harmed the citizens the most

States' rights
Southerners were fearful of the federal encroachments on the rights of the states
South Carolina had a strong commitment to the preservation of slavery and possible uses of federal power
south Carolinians especially against the PROTECTIVE TARIFF
the protective tariff burdened southern states because it increased the prices that southern agriculturists paid for manufactured goods and threatened to undermine their foreign markets by stirring counter production

Vice President John C. Calhoun emerged as the leader of the states’ rights insurgency in South Carolina
he affirmed NULLIFICATION- right of an individual state to set aside federal law
thought President Jackson was going to support nullification to help his native region- the South
However, there was a personal feud between Calhoun and Jackson
due to the Eaton incident and history of advocating punishment of Jackson
Jackson thought about using military action so alerted the secretary of war
announced the supporting nullification was treason
Justified the use of force against states that denied federal authority
More strongly than any previous president, asserted that the Federal government was supreme over the states and the Union